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Sharia law - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Simple English Wikipedia
Sharia law Arabic: ?????) is the body of Islamic law. The
term means "way" or "path"; it is the legal framework within
which the public and some private aspects of life are
regulated for those living in a legal system based on
Sharia Not to be confused with Saria (disambiguation), Shahriyar (disambiguation), Shara (disambiguation), or Shariyah (disambiguation) is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia deals with many topics addressed by secular law, including crime, politics, and economics, as well as personal matters such as sexual intercourse, hygiene, diet, prayer, and fasting. Though interpretations of sharia vary between cultures, in its strictest definition it is considered the infallible law of Godas opposed to the human interpretation of the laws (fiqh).
There are two primary sources of sharia law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Where it has official status, sharia is interpreted by Islamic judges (qadis) with varying responsibilities for the religious leaders (imams). For questions not directly addressed in the primary sources, the application of sharia is extended through consensus of the religious scholars (ulama) thought to embody the consensus of the Muslim Community (ijma). Islamic jurisprudence will also sometimes incorporate analogies from the Quran and Sunnah through qiyas, though Shia jurists prefer reasoning ('aql) to analogy.
The reintroduction of sharia is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements in Muslim countries, but attempts to impose sharia have been accompanied by controversy, violence, and even warfare such as the Second Sudanese Civil War. Some in Israel and other countries in Asia have maintained institutional recognition of sharia, and use it to adjudicate their personal and community affairs. In Britain, the Muslim Arbitration Tribunal makes use of sharia family law to settle disputes.
Sharia in the secular Muslim states: Muslim countries such as Mali, Kazakhstan, and Turkey have declared themselves to be secular, meaning religious interference in state affairs, law, and politics is prohibited. In short, sharia is limited to personal and family matters. I wish he had that kind of law systerm in the US. only applicable to Muslims and is restricted to family law and religious observances.
Categories of human behaviour
Fiqh classifies behaviour into the following types or grades: fard (obligatory), mustahabb (recommended), mubah (neutral), makruh (discouraged), and haraam (forbidden). Every human action belongs in one of these five categories.
Actions in the fard category are those required of all Muslims. They include the five daily prayers, fasting, articles of faith, obligatory charity, and the hajj pilgrimage to Mecca.
The mustahabb category includes proper behaviour in matters such as marriage, funeral rites and family life. As such, it covers many of the same areas as civil law in the West. Sharia courts attempt to reconcile parties to disputes in this area using the recommended behaviour as their guide. A person whose behaviour is not mustahabb can be ruled against by the judge.
All behaviour which is neither discouraged nor recommended, neither forbidden nor required is of the Mubah; it is permissible.
Makruh behaviour, while it is not sinful of itself, is considered undesirable among Muslims. It may also make a Muslim liable to criminal penalties under certain circumstances.
Haraam behaviour is explicitly forbidden. It is both sinful and criminal. It includes all actions expressly forbidden in the Quran. Certain Muslim dietary and clothing restrictions also fall into this category.
The recommended, neutral and discouraged categories are drawn largely from accounts of the life of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. To say a behaviour is sunnah is to say it is recommended as an example from the life and sayings of Muhammad. These categories form the basis for proper behaviour in matters such as courtesy and manners, interpersonal relations, generosity, personal habits and hygiene.
Requirements for Islamic Marriages:
The man who is not currently a fornicator[clarification needed] may marry only a woman who is not currently a fornicatress or a chaste woman, a Muslim one or one from the people of the Book (Jews and Christians).
The woman who is not currently a fornicatress may marry only a man who is not currently a fornicator.
The fornicator may marry only a fornicatress.
The Muslim woman may marry only a Muslim man.
Permission for a virgin female to marry must be given by her guardian, usually her father.
Any Muslim woman may demand her guardian marry her to a Muslim male, provided he is suitable. If the guardian refuses, a judge will effect the marriage.
The father, or in some cases the paternal grandfather, may choose a suitable partner for a virgin girl.
The guardian may not marry the divorced woman or the widow if she did not ask to be married.
Without the permission of the girl an Islamic marriage is considered invalid.
It is obligatory for a man to give bride wealth (gifts) to the woman he marries "Do not marry unless you give your wife something that is her right."
The Qur'an permits a Muslim man to marry more than one woman at a time (up to a maximum of four), but does not encourage such behaviour. Polygamy is only permitted in certain circumstances, such as when the death of another man has left his wife with no other means of support. All wives are entitled to separate living quarters at the behest of the husband and, if possible, all should receive equal attention, support, treatment and inheritance. In modern practice, it is uncommon for a Muslim man to have more than one wife; if he does so, it is often due to the infertility of his first wife. The practice of polygamy has been regulated or abolished in some Muslim states.
Historically, Muslim rulers have often remarried the wives of their conquered opponents in order to gain ties of kinship with their new subjects. In these cases, the wives of leaders have sometimes numbered in the tens or even hundreds. In Ottoman Turkey, the practice also filtered down to the aristocracy. This became the basis for the Western image of a powerful, wealthy Muslim with a vast harem.
An unhappy wife is complaining to the Qadi about her husband's impotence. Ottoman miniature, 18th century.
The laws governing divorce vary substantially between sects, schools, states and cultures. The following outline is general in nature.
A marriage can be terminated by the husband in the talaq process, or by the wife seeking divorce through khul'. Under faskh a marriage may be annulled or terminated by the qadi judge.
Men have the right of unilateral divorce under classical sharia. A Sunni Muslim divorce is effective when the man tells his wife that he is divorcing her, however a Shia divorce also requires four witnesses. Upon divorce, the husband must pay the wife any delayed component of the dower. If a man divorces his wife in this manner three times, he may not re-marry her unless she first marries, and is subsequently divorced from, another man. Only then, and only if the divorce from the second husband is not intended as a means to re-marry her first husband, may the first husband and the woman re-marry.[Quran 2:230]
In practice, unilateral divorce is only common in a few areas of the Islamic world. It is much more common for divorces to be accomplished by mutual consent.
If the wife asks for a divorce and the husband refuses, the wife has a right, under classical sharia, to divorce by khul'. Although this right is not recognized everywhere in Islam, it is becoming more common. In this scenario, the qadi judge will effect the divorce for the wife, and she may be required to return part, or all, of her dowry.
Under faskh, a qadi judge can end or annul a marriage. Apostasy, on the part of the husband or wife, ends a Muslim marriage in this way. Hardship or suffering on the part of the wife in a marriage may also be remedied in this way. This procedure is also used to annul a marriage in which one of the parties has a serious disability.
Except in the case of a khul' divorce initiated by a woman, the divorced wife generally keeps her dowry from when she was married. A divorced woman is given child support until the age of weaning. The mother is usually granted custody of the child. If the couple has divorced fewer than three times (meaning it is not a final divorce) the wife also receives spousal support for three menstrual cycles after the divorce, until it can be determined whether she is pregnant. Even in a threefold divorce, a pregnant wife will be supported during the waiting period, and the child will be supported afterwards.
In a divorce, the child will stay with the mother until he or she is weaned, or until the age of discernment, when the child may choose whom he or she lives with. The age of discernment is seven or eight years.
religious courts have jurisdiction over civil cases
between Muslim spouses on matters concerning marriage,
divorce, reconciliation, child custody, inheritance and
alimony but otherwise have a secular legal system.
Our country is being taken over by Sharia Law. But it's not the one you're thinking. It is basically JudoChristian Sharia Law. The latest example of the imposition of Judo/Christian religion is its use
Homeland Security officials to stop requiring that atheists provide religion-based documentation in order to prove they have a moral objection to violence on their citizenship applications. Click here to sign our petition.
Margaret Doughty, a 64-year-old woman from the U.K., has lived in the United States for 30 years. During this time, she founded an organization to raise literacy rates around the country and globe. Unfortunately, now that she has applied for U.S. citizenship, the Department of Homeland Security may deny her application because she is an atheist.
On her application, Margaret declined to take up arms to defend the United Statesdue to her moral opposition to violence. The U.S. Citizenship & Immigration Services (a division of DHS) replied that only religious-based objections are validinstructing her to submit proof of her religion on official church stationery by June 21tomorrowor they will deny her U.S. citizenship.
Please sign our petition to Homeland Security urging them to grant U.S. citizenship to Margaret Doughty, and to end their unconstitutional policy requiring that applicants provide religious-based documentation in order to prove they have a moral objection to engaging in violence.
Simple "Blue Laws"
Sodomy laws used against homosexuals but not heterosexuals.
Though unconstitutional, to run for public office in
_____ and (list states) you have to be an acknowledged
When are you going to stop using your religious freedom to stop me from using mine. I don't have a problem with your religious freedom in your house of worship or in your home but when you start using it to control me, or deny me my rights, use your morals to control me. Use those morals to set laws that prohibit me from enjoying mine. Using your morals to discriminate. When will it stop. Before the inquisition starts again. You choose to use your religious values (not Christ's values) to discriminate against people you determine aren't heterosexual. You've had hundreds of special heterosexual laws in your favor for too long. Are you going to use those perverted values to deny interracial couples service. How about those who work on Sunday. If you work on Sunday but say serving people on Sunday is against your religious values and refuse to work. Serve people who play football. Wear blended fiber clothing, after all that's an abomination. How about setting up Saturday or Sunday stoning scions after your service for everyone you found to have had sex out of marriage. Of used an astrologer. Or are an astrologer. How above decapitating hands of all of those women who have touched their husband penis to stop him from fighting (leviticus) When are we really going to stop allowing the church to be in bed with the state. That's seems like an abomination in itself. The Christians claim Sharia Law is coming to these United States yet can't produce one example of it anywhere within the U.S. It's not Sharia Law we have to worry about. It's the Christians version of Sharia Law that is trying to take over and control all of us, Christians, Jews, Muslims, Buddhist, Atheists, etc. etc. etc. That is the Sharia Law you better start worrying about. And it's imbedded in the soul of most Republican Candidates for President in this election. Just listen to their hate and disposing of others.
My prayer: "Jesus. Protect me from your followers for
they are a hateful lot."
Mississippi could now legalize discrimination against people who have premarital sex
An intelletual hatred is the worst. - William Butler Yeats.
To me, Faith Based hate is the worst. - Gordon Clay
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